Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.10(FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服

 

Nginx 0.8.x + PHP 5.2.10FastCGI)搭建胜过Apache十倍的Web服务器(第5版)[原创]

http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v5/

 

前言:本文是我撰写的关于搭建“Nginx + PHPFastCGI”Web服务器的第5篇文章。本系列文章作为国内最早详细介绍 Nginx + PHP 安装、配置、使用的资料之一,为推动 Nginx 在国内的发展产生了积极的作用。这是一篇关于Nginx 0.7.x系列版本的文章,安装、配置方式与第4篇文章相差不大,但增加了MySQL安装配置的信息、PHP 5.2.10 php-fpm 补丁Nginx 0.7.x系列版本虽然为开发版,但在很多大型网站的生产环境中已经使用。

  链接:《20079月的第1》、《200712月的第2》、《20086月的第3》、《20088月的第4

  

  Nginx ("engine x") 是一个高性能的 HTTP 和反向代理服务器,也是一个 IMAP/POP3/SMTP 代理服务器。 Nginx 是由 Igor Sysoev 为俄罗斯访问量第二的 Rambler.ru 站点开发的,它已经在该站点运行超过两年半了。Igor 将源代码以类BSD许可证的形式发布。

  Nginx 超越 Apache 的高性能和稳定性,使得国内使用 Nginx 作为 Web 服务器的网站也越来越多,其中包括新浪博客新浪播客网易新闻等门户网站频道,六间房56.com等视频分享网站,Discuz!官方论坛水木社区等知名论坛,豆瓣YUPOO相册海内SNS迅雷在线等新兴Web 2.0网站。



  Nginx 的官方中文维基:http://wiki.nginx.org/NginxChs



  在高并发连接的情况下,NginxApache服务器不错的替代品。Nginx同时也可以作为7层负载均衡服务器来使用。根据我的测试结果,Nginx 0.8.15 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 可以承受3万以上的并发连接数,相当于同等环境下Apache10

  根据我的经验,4GB内存的服务器+Apacheprefork模式)一般只能处理3000个并发连接,因为它们将占用3GB以上的内存,还得为系统预留1GB的内存。我曾经就有两台Apache服务器,因为在配置文件中设置的MaxClients4000,当Apache并发连接数达到3800时,导致服务器内存和Swap空间用满而崩溃。

  而这台 Nginx 0.8.15 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 服务器在3万并发连接下,开启的10Nginx进程消耗150M内存(15M*10=150M),开启的64php-cgi进程消耗1280M内存(20M*64=1280M),加上系统自身消耗的内存,总共消耗不到2GB内存。如果服务器内存较小,完全可以只开启25php-cgi进程,这样php-cgi消耗的总内存数才500M

  在3万并发连接下,访问Nginx 0.8.15 + PHP 5.2.10 (FastCGI) 服务器的PHP程序,仍然速度飞快。下图为Nginx的状态监控页面,显示的活动连接数为28457(关于Nginx的监控页配置,会在本文接下来所给出的Nginx配置文件中写明):

  

  我生产环境下的两台Nginx + PHP5FastCGI)服务器,跑多个一般复杂的纯PHP动态程序,单台Nginx + PHP5FastCGI)服务器跑PHP动态程序的处理能力已经超过“700次请求/,相当于每天可以承受6000万(700*60*60*24=60480000)的访问量(更多信息见此),而服务器的系统负载也不高:

  

  200993下午230,金山游戏《剑侠情缘网络版叁》临时维护1小时(http://kefu.xoyo.com/gonggao/jx3/2009-09-03/750438.shtml),大量玩家上官网,论坛、评论、客服等动态应用Nginx服务器集群,每台服务器的Nginx活动连接数达到2.8万,这是笔者遇到的Nginx生产环境最高并发值。

  



  下面是用100个并发连接分别去压生产环境中同一负载均衡器VIP下、提供相同服务的两台服务器,一台为Nginx,另一台为ApacheNginx每秒处理的请求数是Apache的两倍多,Nginx服务器的系统负载、CPU使用率远低于Apache

  你可以将连接数开到1000030000,去压NginxApache上的phpinfo.php,这是用浏览器访问Nginx上的phpinfo.php一切正常,而访问Apache服务器的phpinfo.php,则是该页无法显示。4G内存的服务器,即使再优化,Apache也很难在“webbench -c 30000 -t 60 http://xxx.xxx.xxx.xxx/phpinfo.php的压力情况下正常访问,而调整参数优化后的Nginx可以。

  webbench 下载地址:http://blog.s135.com/post/288/

  注意:webbench 做压力测试时,该软件自身也会消耗CPU和内存资源,为了测试准确,请将 webbench 安装在别的服务器上。

  测试结果:##### Nginx + PHP #####

引用

[root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET
http://192.168.1.21/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=102450 pages/min, 16490596 bytes/sec.
Requests: 51225 susceed, 0 failed.

top - 14:06:13 up 27 days,  2:25,  2 users,  load average: 14.57, 9.89, 6.51
Tasks: 287 total,   4 running, 283 sleeping,   0 stopped,   0 zombie
Cpu(s): 49.9% us,  6.7% sy,  0.0% ni, 41.4% id,  1.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.8% si
Mem:   6230016k total,  2959468k used,  3270548k free,   635992k buffers
Swap:  2031608k total,     3696k used,  2027912k free,  1231444k cached



  测试结果:#####  Apache + PHP #####

引用

[root@localhost webbench-1.5]# webbench -c 100 -t 30 http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
Webbench - Simple Web Benchmark 1.5
Copyright (c) Radim Kolar 1997-2004, GPL Open Source Software.

Benchmarking: GET
http://192.168.1.27/phpinfo.php
100 clients, running 30 sec.

Speed=42184 pages/min, 31512914 bytes/sec.
Requests: 21092 susceed, 0 failed.

top - 14:06:20 up 27 days,  2:13,  2 users,  load average: 62.15, 26.36, 13.42
Tasks: 318 total,   7 running, 310 sleeping,   0 stopped,   1 zombie
Cpu(s): 80.4% us, 10.6% sy,  0.0% ni,  7.9% id,  0.1% wa,  0.1% hi,  0.9% si
Mem:   6230016k total,  3075948k used,  3154068k free,   379896k buffers
Swap:  2031608k total,    12592k used,  2019016k free,  1117868k cached

 



  为什么Nginx的性能要比Apache高得多?这得益于Nginx使用了最新的epollLinux 2.6内核)和kqueuefreebsd)网络I/O模型,而Apache则使用的是传统的select模型。目前Linux下能够承受高并发访问的SquidMemcached都采用的是epoll网络I/O模型。

  处理大量的连接的读写,Apache所采用的select网络I/O模型非常低效。下面用一个比喻来解析Apache采用的select模型和Nginx采用的epoll模型进行之间的区别:

  假设你在大学读书,住的宿舍楼有很多间房间,你的朋友要来找你。select版宿管大妈就会带着你的朋友挨个房间去找,直到找到你为止。而epoll版宿管大妈会先记下每位同学的房间号,你的朋友来时,只需告诉你的朋友你住在哪个房间即可,不用亲自带着你的朋友满大楼找人。如果来了10000个人,都要找自己住这栋楼的同学时,select版和epoll版宿管大妈,谁的效率更高,不言自明。同理,在高并发服务器中,轮询I/O是最耗时间的操作之一,selectepoll的性能谁的性能更高,同样十分明了。



  安装步骤:
  (系统要求:Linux 2.6+ 内核,本文中的Linux操作系统为CentOS 5.3,另在RedHat AS4上也安装成功)

  一、获取相关开源程序:
  1、【适用CentOS操作系统】利用CentOS Linux系统自带的yum命令安装、升级所需的程序库(RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包,进行安装):

sudo -s
LANG=C
yum -y install gcc gcc-c++ autoconf libjpeg libjpeg-devel libpng libpng-devel freetype freetype-devel libxml2 libxml2-devel zlib zlib-devel glibc glibc-devel glib2 glib2-devel bzip2 bzip2-devel ncurses ncurses-devel curl curl-devel e2fsprogs e2fsprogs-devel krb5 krb5-devel libidn libidn-devel openssl openssl-devel openldap openldap-devel nss_ldap openldap-clients openldap-servers



  2、【适用RedHat操作系统】RedHat等其他Linux发行版可从安装光盘中找到这些程序库的RPM包(事先可通过类似“rpm -qa | grep libjpeg”的命令查看所需的RPM包是否存在,通常是“xxx-devel”不存在,需要安装)。RedHat可以直接利用CentOSRPM包安装,以下是RPM包下载网址:
  RedHat AS4 & CentOS 4
  
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/i386/CentOS/RPMS/
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/4/os/x86_64/CentOS/RPMS/

  RedHat AS5 & CentOS 5
  
http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/i386/CentOS/
  http://mirrors.163.com/centos/5/os/x86_64/CentOS/

  RPM包搜索网站
  http://rpm.pbone.net/
  http://www.rpmfind.net/

  RedHat AS4 系统环境,通常情况下缺少的支持包安装:
  i386 系统

wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.i386.rpm
wget
http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.i386.rpm
wget
http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/i386/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm
rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.i386.rpm


  x86_64 系统

wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh libjpeg-devel-6b-33.x86_64.rpm
wget
http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh freetype-devel-2.1.9-1.x86_64.rpm
wget
http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/rpm/x86_64/libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm
rpm -ivh libpng-devel-1.2.7-1.x86_64.rpm



  3、【适用CentOSRedHat及其它Linux操作系统】下载程序源码包:
  本文中提到的所有开源软件为截止到20090918的最新稳定版。
  、从软件的官方网站下载:

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget
http://sysoev.ru/nginx/nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
wget http://www.php.net/get/php-5.2.10.tar.gz/from/this/mirror
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz
wget http://dev.mysql.com/get/Downloads/MySQL-5.1/mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz/from/http://mysql.he.net/
wget http://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz?modtime=1171868460&big_mirror=0"
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz?modtime=1194463373&big_mirror=0"
wget
http://pecl.php.net/get/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget "http://downloads.sourceforge.net/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz?modtime=1175740843&big_mirror=0"
wget
ftp://ftp.csx.cam.ac.uk/pub/software/programming/pcre/pcre-7.9.tar.gz
wget http://bart.eaccelerator.net/source/0.9.5.3/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://pecl.php.net/get/imagick-2.2.2.tgz


  、从blog.s135.com下载(比较稳定,只允许在本站,或者在Linux/Unix下通过WgetCurl等命令下载以下软件):

mkdir -p /data0/software
cd /data0/software
wget
http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/nginx/nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/php/php-5.2.10.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/phpfpm/php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mysql/mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/libiconv/libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mcrypt/mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/memcache/memcache-2.2.5.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/mhash/mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pcre/pcre-7.9.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/eaccelerator/eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/pdo/PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/ImageMagick.tar.gz
wget http://blog.s135.com/soft/linux/nginx_php/imagick/imagick-2.2.2.tgz

 



  二、安装PHP 5.2.10FastCGI模式)
  1、编译安装PHP 5.2.10所需的支持库:

tar zxvf libiconv-1.13.tar.gz
cd libiconv-1.13/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf libmcrypt-2.5.8.tar.gz
cd libmcrypt-2.5.8/
./configure
make
make install
/sbin/ldconfig
cd libltdl/
./configure --enable-ltdl-install
make
make install
cd ../../   #
两次返回上级目录


tar zxvf mhash-0.9.9.9.tar.gz
cd mhash-0.9.9.9/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.la /usr/lib/libmcrypt.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8 /usr/lib/libmcrypt.so.4.4.8
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.a /usr/lib/libmhash.a
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.la /usr/lib/libmhash.la
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so /usr/lib/libmhash.so
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2
ln -s /usr/local/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1 /usr/lib/libmhash.so.2.0.1

tar zxvf mcrypt-2.6.8.tar.gz
cd mcrypt-2.6.8/
/sbin/ldconfig
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

 



  2、编译安装MySQL 5.1.38

/usr/sbin/groupadd mysql
/usr/sbin/useradd -g mysql mysql
tar zxvf mysql-5.1.38.tar.gz
cd mysql-5.1.38/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/ --enable-assembler --with-extra-charsets=complex --enable-thread-safe-client --with-big-tables --with-readline --with-ssl --with-embedded-server --enable-local-infile --with-plugins=innobase
make && make install
chmod +w /usr/local/webserver/mysql
chown -R mysql:mysql /usr/local/webserver/mysql
cd ../

 



  附:以下为附加步骤,如果你想在这台服务器上运行MySQL数据库,则执行以下两步。如果你只是希望让PHP支持MySQL扩展库,能够连接其他服务器上的MySQL数据库,那么,以下两步无需执行。

  、创建MySQL数据库存放目录

mkdir -p /data0/mysql/3306/data/
chown -R mysql:mysql /data0/mysql/



  、以mysql用户帐号的身份建立数据表:

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_install_db --basedir=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --datadir=/data0/mysql/3306/data --user=mysql



  、创建my.cnf配置文件:

vi /data0/mysql/3306/my.cnf


  输入以下内容:

引用

[client]
default-character-set = utf8
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock

[mysql]
prompt="(\u:blog.s135.com:)[\d]> "
no-auto-rehash

[mysqld]
#default-character-set = utf8
user    = mysql
port    = 3306
socket  = /tmp/mysql.sock
basedir = /usr/local/webserver/mysql
datadir = /data0/mysql/3306/data
open_files_limit    = 10240
back_log = 600
max_connections = 3000
max_connect_errors = 6000
table_cache = 614
external-locking = FALSE
max_allowed_packet = 32M
sort_buffer_size = 2M
join_buffer_size = 2M
thread_cache_size = 300
thread_concurrency = 8
query_cache_size = 32M
query_cache_limit = 2M
query_cache_min_res_unit = 2k
default-storage-engine = MyISAM
default_table_type = MyISAM
thread_stack = 192K
transaction_isolation = READ-COMMITTED
tmp_table_size = 246M
max_heap_table_size = 246M
long_query_time = 1
log_long_format
log-bin = /data0/mysql/3306/binlog
binlog_cache_size = 4M
binlog_format = MIXED
max_binlog_cache_size = 8M
max_binlog_size = 512M
expire_logs_days = 7
key_buffer_size = 256M
read_buffer_size = 1M
read_rnd_buffer_size = 16M
bulk_insert_buffer_size = 64M
myisam_sort_buffer_size = 128M
myisam_max_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_max_extra_sort_file_size = 10G
myisam_repair_threads = 1
myisam_recover

skip-name-resolve
master-connect-retry = 10
slave-skip-errors = 1032,1062,126,1114,1146,1048,1396

server-id = 1

innodb_additional_mem_pool_size = 16M
innodb_buffer_pool_size = 2048M
innodb_data_file_path = ibdata1:1024M:autoextend
innodb_file_io_threads = 4
innodb_thread_concurrency = 8
innodb_flush_log_at_trx_commit = 2
innodb_log_buffer_size = 16M
innodb_log_file_size = 128M
innodb_log_files_in_group = 3
innodb_max_dirty_pages_pct = 90
innodb_lock_wait_timeout = 120
innodb_file_per_table = 0
[mysqldump]
quick
max_allowed_packet = 32M



  、创建管理MySQL数据库的shell脚本:

vi /data0/mysql/3306/mysql


  输入以下内容(这里的用户名admin和密码12345678接下来的步骤会创建):

 

#!/bin/sh

 

mysql_port=3306

mysql_username="admin"

mysql_password="12345678"

 

function_start_mysql()

{

    printf "Starting MySQL...\n"

    /bin/sh /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqld_safe --defaults-file=/data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/my.cnf 2>&1 > /dev/null &

}

 

function_stop_mysql()

{

    printf "Stoping MySQL...\n"

    /usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysqladmin -u ${mysql_username} -p${mysql_password} -S /tmp/mysql.sock shutdown

}

 

function_restart_mysql()

{

    printf "Restarting MySQL...\n"

    function_stop_mysql

    sleep 5

    function_start_mysql

}

 

function_kill_mysql()

{

    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'bin/mysqld_safe' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')

    kill -9 $(ps -ef | grep 'libexec/mysqld' | grep ${mysql_port} | awk '{printf $2}')

}

 

if [ "$1" = "start" ]; then

    function_start_mysql

elif [ "$1" = "stop" ]; then

    function_stop_mysql

elif [ "$1" = "restart" ]; then

function_restart_mysql

elif [ "$1" = "kill" ]; then

function_kill_mysql

else

    printf "Usage: /data0/mysql/${mysql_port}/mysql {start|stop|restart|kill}\n"

fi

 

 

、赋予shell脚本可执行权限:

chmod +x /data0/mysql/3306/mysql


  、启动MySQL

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql start


  、通过命令行登录管理MySQL服务器(提示输入密码时直接回车,也就是root密码为空):

/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql -u root -p -S /tmp/mysql.sock


  、输入以下SQL语句,创建一个具有root权限的用户(admin)和密码(12345678):

GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON *.* TO 'admin'@'127.0.0.1' IDENTIFIED BY '12345678';

exit
  、(可选)停止MySQL

/data0/mysql/3306/mysql stop

 



  3、编译安装PHPFastCGI模式)

tar zxvf php-5.2.10.tar.gz
gzip -cd php-5.2.10-fpm-0.5.11.diff.gz | patch -d php-5.2.10 -p1
cd php-5.2.10/
./configure --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/php --with-config-file-path=/usr/local/webserver/php/etc --with-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql --with-mysqli=/usr/local/webserver/mysql/bin/mysql_config --with-iconv-dir=/usr/local --with-freetype-dir --with-jpeg-dir --with-png-dir --with-zlib --with-libxml-dir=/usr --enable-xml --disable-rpath --enable-discard-path --enable-safe-mode --enable-bcmath --enable-shmop --enable-sysvsem --enable-inline-optimization --with-curl --with-curlwrappers --enable-mbregex --enable-fastcgi --enable-fpm --enable-force-cgi-redirect --enable-mbstring --with-mcrypt --with-gd --enable-gd-native-ttf --with-openssl --with-mhash --enable-pcntl --enable-sockets --with-ldap --with-ldap-sasl --with-xmlrpc --enable-zip --enable-soap --without-pear
make ZEND_EXTRA_LIBS='-liconv'
make install
cp php.ini-dist /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
cd ../
curl
http://pear.php.net/go-pear | /usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php

 



  4、编译安装PHP5扩展模块

tar zxvf memcache-2.2.5.tgz
cd memcache-2.2.5/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar jxvf eaccelerator-0.9.5.3.tar.bz2
cd eaccelerator-0.9.5.3/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --enable-eaccelerator=shared --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2.tgz
cd PDO_MYSQL-1.0.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config --with-pdo-mysql=/usr/local/webserver/mysql
make
make install
cd ../


tar zxvf ImageMagick.tar.gz
cd ImageMagick-6.5.1-2/
./configure
make
make install
cd ../

tar zxvf imagick-2.2.2.tgz
cd imagick-2.2.2/
/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/phpize
./configure --with-php-config=/usr/local/webserver/php/bin/php-config
make
make install
cd ../


  5、修改php.ini文件
  手工修改:查找/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini中的extension_dir = "./"
  修改为
extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"
  并在此行后增加以下几行,然后保存:

  extension = "memcache.so"
  
extension = "pdo_mysql.so"
  
extension = "imagick.so"

  再查找
output_buffering = Off
  修改为
output_buffering = On

  自动修改:若嫌手工修改麻烦,可执行以下shell命令,自动完成对php.ini文件的修改:

sed -i 's#extension_dir = "./"#extension_dir = "/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/"\nextension = "memcache.so"\nextension = "pdo_mysql.so"\nextension = "imagick.so"\n#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i 's#output_buffering = Off#output_buffering = On#' /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini
sed -i "s#; always_populate_raw_post_data = On#always_populate_raw_post_data = On#g" /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini



  6、配置eAccelerator加速PHP

mkdir -p /usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php.ini


  按shift+g键跳到配置文件的最末尾,加上以下配置信息:

引用

[eaccelerator]
zend_extension="/usr/local/webserver/php/lib/php/extensions/no-debug-non-zts-20060613/eaccelerator.so"
eaccelerator.shm_size="64"
eaccelerator.cache_dir="/usr/local/webserver/eaccelerator_cache"
eaccelerator.enable="1"
eaccelerator.optimizer="1"
eaccelerator.check_mtime="1"
eaccelerator.debug="0"
eaccelerator.filter=""
eaccelerator.shm_max="0"
eaccelerator.shm_ttl="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_prune_period="3600"
eaccelerator.shm_only="0"
eaccelerator.compress="1"
eaccelerator.compress_level="9"



  7、创建www用户和组,以及供blog.s135.comwww.s135.com两个虚拟主机使用的目录:

/usr/sbin/groupadd www
/usr/sbin/useradd -g www www
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/blog
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/blog
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/blog
mkdir -p /data0/htdocs/www
chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www
chown -R www:www /data0/htdocs/www


  8、创建php-fpm配置文件(php-fpm是为PHP打的一个FastCGI管理补丁,可以平滑变更php.ini配置而无需重启php-cgi):
  在/usr/local/webserver/php/etc/目录中创建php-fpm.conf文件:

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/php/etc/php-fpm.conf


  输入以下内容(如果您安装 Nginx + PHP 用于程序调试,请将以下的<value name="display_errors">0</value>改为<value name="display_errors">1</value>,以便显示PHP错误信息,否则,Nginx 会报状态为500的空白错误页):

 

快速复制以下php-fpm.conf代码:

 

<?xml version="1.0" ?>

<configuration>

 

  All relative paths in this config are relative to php's install prefix

 

  <section name="global_options">

 

    Pid file

    <value name="pid_file">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.pid</value>

 

    Error log file

    <value name="error_log">/usr/local/webserver/php/logs/php-fpm.log</value>

 

    Log level

    <value name="log_level">notice</value>

 

    When this amount of php processes exited with SIGSEGV or SIGBUS ...

    <value name="emergency_restart_threshold">10</value>

 

    ... in a less than this interval of time, a graceful restart will be initiated.

    Useful to work around accidental curruptions in accelerator's shared memory.

    <value name="emergency_restart_interval">1m</value>

 

    Time limit on waiting child's reaction on signals from master

    <value name="process_control_timeout">5s</value>

 

    Set to 'no' to debug fpm

    <value name="daemonize">yes</value>

 

  </section>

 

  <workers>

 

    <section name="pool">

 

      Name of pool. Used in logs and stats.

      <value name="name">default</value>

 

      Address to accept fastcgi requests on.

      Valid syntax is 'ip.ad.re.ss:port' or just 'port' or '/path/to/unix/socket'

      <value name="listen_address">127.0.0.1:9000</value>

 

      <value name="listen_options">

 

        Set listen(2) backlog

        <value name="backlog">-1</value>

 

        Set permissions for unix socket, if one used.

        In Linux read/write permissions must be set in order to allow connections from web server.

        Many BSD-derrived systems allow connections regardless of permissions.

        <value name="owner"></value>

        <value name="group"></value>

        <value name="mode">0666</value>

      </value>

 

      Additional php.ini defines, specific to this pool of workers.

      <value name="php_defines">

        <value name="sendmail_path">/usr/sbin/sendmail -t -i</value>

        <value name="display_errors">1</value>

      </value>

 

      Unix user of processes

        <value name="user">www</value>

 

      Unix group of processes

        <value name="group">www</value>

 

      Process manager settings

      <value name="pm">

 

        Sets style of controling worker process count.

        Valid values are 'static' and 'apache-like'

        <value name="style">static</value>

 

        Sets the limit on the number of simultaneous requests that will be served.

        Equivalent to Apache MaxClients directive.

        Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_CHILDREN environment in original php.fcgi

        Used with any pm_style.

        <value name="max_children">128</value>

 

        Settings group for 'apache-like' pm style

        <value name="apache_like">

 

          Sets the number of server processes created on startup.

          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected

          <value name="StartServers">20</value>

 

          Sets the desired minimum number of idle server processes.

          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected

          <value name="MinSpareServers">5</value>

 

          Sets the desired maximum number of idle server processes.

          Used only when 'apache-like' pm_style is selected

          <value name="MaxSpareServers">35</value>

 

        </value>

 

      </value>

 

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving a single request after which the worker process will be terminated

      Should be used when 'max_execution_time' ini option does not stop script execution for some reason

      '0s' means 'off'

      <value name="request_terminate_timeout">0s</value>

 

      The timeout (in seconds) for serving of single request after which a php backtrace will be dumped to slow.log file

      '0s' means 'off'

      <value name="request_slowlog_timeout">0s</value>

 

      The log file for slow requests

      <value name="slowlog">logs/slow.log</value>

 

      Set open file desc rlimit

      <value name="rlimit_files">65535</value>

 

      Set max core size rlimit

      <value name="rlimit_core">0</value>

 

      Chroot to this directory at the start, absolute path

      <value name="chroot"></value>

 

      Chdir to this directory at the start, absolute path

      <value name="chdir"></value>

 

      Redirect workers' stdout and stderr into main error log.

      If not set, they will be redirected to /dev/null, according to FastCGI specs

      <value name="catch_workers_output">yes</value>

 

      How much requests each process should execute before respawn.

      Useful to work around memory leaks in 3rd party libraries.

      For endless request processing please specify 0

      Equivalent to PHP_FCGI_MAX_REQUESTS

      <value name="max_requests">102400</value>

 

      Comma separated list of ipv4 addresses of FastCGI clients that allowed to connect.

      Equivalent to FCGI_WEB_SERVER_ADDRS environment in original php.fcgi (5.2.2+)

      Makes sense only with AF_INET listening socket.

      <value name="allowed_clients">127.0.0.1</value>

 

      Pass environment variables like LD_LIBRARY_PATH

      All $VARIABLEs are taken from current environment

      <value name="environment">

        <value name="HOSTNAME">$HOSTNAME</value>

        <value name="PATH">/usr/local/bin:/usr/bin:/bin</value>

        <value name="TMP">/tmp</value>

        <value name="TMPDIR">/tmp</value>

        <value name="TEMP">/tmp</value>

        <value name="OSTYPE">$OSTYPE</value>

        <value name="MACHTYPE">$MACHTYPE</value>

        <value name="MALLOC_CHECK_">2</value>

      </value>

 

    </section>

 

  </workers>

 

</configuration>

 

 

 

 

9、启动php-cgi进程,监听127.0.0.19000端口,进程数为200(如果服务器内存小于3GB,可以只开启64个进程),用户为www

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start

另:ulimit命令是用于限制shell启动进程所占用的资源。其所有的设置都是针对shell进程的,每个进程是独立的。
ulimit -n 1024
表示每个启动的进程可以同时打开的文件描述符的最大值是1024
-H
设置硬件资源限制。
-S
设置软件资源限制。
  注:/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm还有其他参数,包括:start|stop|quit|restart|reload|logrotate,修改php.ini后不重启php-cgi,重新加载配置文件使用reload


  三、安装Nginx 0.8.15
  1、安装Nginx所需的pcre库:

tar zxvf pcre-7.9.tar.gz
cd pcre-7.9/
./configure
make && make install
cd ../


  2、安装Nginx

tar zxvf nginx-0.8.15.tar.gz
cd nginx-0.8.15/
./configure --user=www --group=www --prefix=/usr/local/webserver/nginx --with-http_stub_status_module --with-http_ssl_module
make && make install
cd ../


  3、创建Nginx日志目录

mkdir -p /data1/logs
chmod +w /data1/logs
chown -R www:www /data1/logs


  4、创建Nginx配置文件
  、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建nginx.conf文件:

rm -f /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf
vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf


  输入以下内容:

 

user  www www;

worker_processes 8;

error_log  /data1/logs/nginx_error.log  crit;

pid        /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid;

#Specifies the value for maximum file descriptors that can be opened by this process.
worker_rlimit_nofile 65535;

events
{
  use epoll;
  worker_connections 65535;
}

http
{
  include       mime.types;
  default_type  application/octet-stream;

  #charset  gb2312;
      
  server_names_hash_bucket_size 128;
  client_header_buffer_size 32k;
  large_client_header_buffers 4 32k;
  client_max_body_size 8m;
      
  sendfile on;
  tcp_nopush     on;

  keepalive_timeout 60;

  tcp_nodelay on;

  fastcgi_connect_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_send_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_read_timeout 300;
  fastcgi_buffer_size 64k;
  fastcgi_buffers 4 64k;
  fastcgi_busy_buffers_size 128k;
  fastcgi_temp_file_write_size 128k;

  gzip on;
  gzip_min_length  1k;
  gzip_buffers     4 16k;
  gzip_http_version 1.0;
  gzip_comp_level 2;
  gzip_types       text/plain application/x-javascript text/css application/xml;
  gzip_vary on;

  #limit_zone  crawler  $binary_remote_addr  10m;

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  blog.s135.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/blog;

    #limit_conn   crawler  20;    
                            
    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }
    
    location ~ .*\.(gif|jpg|jpeg|png|bmp|swf)$
    {
      expires      30d;
    }

    location ~ .*\.(js|css)?$
    {
      expires      1h;
    }    

    log_format  access  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
              '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
              '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/access.log  access;
      }

  server
  {
    listen       80;
    server_name  
www.s135.com;
    index index.html index.htm index.php;
    root  /data0/htdocs/www;

    location ~ .*\.(php|php5)?$
    {      
      #fastcgi_pass  unix:/tmp/php-cgi.sock;
      fastcgi_pass  127.0.0.1:9000;
      fastcgi_index index.php;
      include fcgi.conf;
    }

    log_format  wwwlogs  '$remote_addr - $remote_user [$time_local] "$request" '
               '$status $body_bytes_sent "$http_referer" '
               '"$http_user_agent" $http_x_forwarded_for';
    access_log  /data1/logs/wwwlogs.log  wwwlogs;
  }

  server
  {
    listen  80;
    server_name  status.blog.s135.com;

    location / {
    stub_status on;
    access_log   off;
    }
  }
}


  、在/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/目录中创建fcgi.conf文件:

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/fcgi.conf


  输入以下内容:

引用

fastcgi_param  GATEWAY_INTERFACE  CGI/1.1;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_SOFTWARE    nginx;

fastcgi_param  QUERY_STRING       $query_string;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_METHOD     $request_method;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_TYPE       $content_type;
fastcgi_param  CONTENT_LENGTH     $content_length;

fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_FILENAME    $document_root$fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  SCRIPT_NAME        $fastcgi_script_name;
fastcgi_param  REQUEST_URI        $request_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_URI       $document_uri;
fastcgi_param  DOCUMENT_ROOT      $document_root;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PROTOCOL    $server_protocol;

fastcgi_param  REMOTE_ADDR        $remote_addr;
fastcgi_param  REMOTE_PORT        $remote_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_ADDR        $server_addr;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_PORT        $server_port;
fastcgi_param  SERVER_NAME        $server_name;

# PHP only, required if PHP was built with --enable-force-cgi-redirect
fastcgi_param  REDIRECT_STATUS    200;


  5、启动Nginx

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx


  四、配置开机自动启动Nginx + PHP

vi /etc/rc.local


  在末尾增加以下内容:

引用

ulimit -SHn 65535
/usr/local/webserver/php/sbin/php-fpm start
/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx

 


  五、优化Linux内核参数

vi /etc/sysctl.conf


  在末尾增加以下内容:

引用

# Add
net.ipv4.tcp_max_syn_backlog = 65536
net.core.netdev_max_backlog =  32768
net.core.somaxconn = 32768

net.core.wmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_default = 8388608
net.core.rmem_max = 16777216
net.core.wmem_max = 16777216

net.ipv4.tcp_timestamps = 0
net.ipv4.tcp_synack_retries = 2
net.ipv4.tcp_syn_retries = 2

net.ipv4.tcp_tw_recycle = 1
#net.ipv4.tcp_tw_len = 1
net.ipv4.tcp_tw_reuse = 1

net.ipv4.tcp_mem = 94500000 915000000 927000000
net.ipv4.tcp_max_orphans = 3276800

#net.ipv4.tcp_fin_timeout = 30
#net.ipv4.tcp_keepalive_time = 120
net.ipv4.ip_local_port_range = 1024  65535


  使配置立即生效:

/sbin/sysctl -p


  六、在不停止Nginx服务的情况下平滑变更Nginx配置
  1、修改/usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf配置文件后,请执行以下命令检查配置文件是否正确:

/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/nginx -t


  如果屏幕显示以下两行信息,说明配置文件正确:
  the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf syntax is ok
  
the configuration file /usr/local/webserver/nginx/conf/nginx.conf was tested successfully

  2、这时,输入以下命令查看Nginx主进程号:

ps -ef | grep "nginx: master process" | grep -v "grep" | awk -F ' ' '{print $2}'


  屏幕显示的即为Nginx主进程号,例如:
  6302
  这时,执行以下命令即可使修改过的Nginx配置文件生效:

kill -HUP 6302


  或者无需这么麻烦,找到NginxPid文件:

kill -HUP `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



  七、编写每天定时切割Nginx日志的脚本
  1、创建脚本/usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh

vi /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh


  输入以下内容:

引用

#!/bin/bash
# This script run at 00:00

# The Nginx logs path
logs_path="/usr/local/webserver/nginx/logs/"

mkdir -p ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/
mv ${logs_path}access.log ${logs_path}$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y")/$(date -d "yesterday" +"%m")/access_$(date -d "yesterday" +"%Y%m%d").log
kill -USR1 `cat /usr/local/webserver/nginx/nginx.pid`



  2、设置crontab,每天凌晨00:00切割nginx访问日志

crontab -e


  输入以下内容:

引用

00 00 * * * /bin/bash  /usr/local/webserver/nginx/sbin/cut_nginx_log.sh



  本文若有小的修改,会第一时间在以下网址发布:
  http://blog.s135.com/nginx_php_v5/


附:文章修改历史

  ● [20090506] [Version 5.0] 4.14版本的基础上重新撰写本文,支持PHP 5.2.9,增加MySQL配置过程

  ● [20090510] [Version 5.1] 增加压力测试方法。

  ● [20090520] [Version 5.2] Nginx升级到0.7.58版本;PHP编译选项增加:--with-xmlrpc --enable-zip

  ● [20090610] [Version 5.3] Nginx升级到0.7.59版本;MySQL升级到5.1.35版本。

  ● [20090626] [Version 5.4] Nginx升级到0.7.61版本;PHP升级到5.2.10版本;PCRE升级到7.9版本;PHP增加soap扩展;关闭了PHPPEAR;优化sysctl配置。

  ● [20090918] [Version 5.5] Nginx升级到0.8.15版本;PCRE升级到7.9版本;解决PHP 5.2.10 PEAR问题。

  (全文完)

 

 

 

 

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/config.inc.php

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/attachments

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/cache

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/templates

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/threadcaches

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/logs

chmod +w /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/uc_client/data/cache

 

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/config.inc.php

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/attachments

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/cache

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/templates

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/threadcaches

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/forumdata/logs

chown –R root:root /data0/htdocs/www/bbs/uc_client/data/cache

 



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[本日志由 itbkb 于 2010-04-29 03:56 PM 编辑]
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Lida
Lida[2017-10-16 04:46 AM | | Mail To:lida_leclair@gmail.com | 89.35.105.95 | del | 回复回复]
200#
In BARBOZA, Heloisa Helena; BARRETTO, Vicente de Paulo (organizadores).
A primeira mulher com a que conversei é Bárbara.
Edwin
Edwin[2017-10-12 11:12 AM | | Mail To:edwindun@gmail.com | 103.27.238.252 | del | 回复回复]
199#
The info is incredibly helpful.
Selina
Selina[2017-10-11 08:16 PM | | Mail To:selinafalk@zoho.com | unknown | del | 回复回复]
198#
Great looking web site. Think you did a bunch of your own html coding.
Russel
Russel[2017-10-10 00:03 AM | | Mail To:russel_walkley@zoho.com | 103.27.238.252 | del | 回复回复]
197#
I like this website - its so usefull and helpfull.
Hollis
Hollis[2017-10-08 07:37 AM | | Mail To:hollisfollansbee@gmail.com